All Publications

Please Note: These electronic articles are posted for individual, noncommericial use to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly work. They are intended for teaching and training purposes only. Copyright (and all rights therein) resides with the respective copyright holders, as stated in each paper. Articles may not be re-posted or disseminated without permission from those copyright holder. Simone Schnall asserts no COI on any of these publications. Research funding comes from the University of Cambridge, unless otherwise noted.

Henderson, R. K., & Schnall, S. (in press). Disease and disapproval: COVID-19 concern is related to greater moral condemnation. Disease and disapproval: COVID-19 concern is related to greater moral condemnation. Evolutionary Psychology.

Baer, T., & Schnall, S. (2021). Quantifying the costs of decision fatigue: Suboptimal risk decisions in finance. Royal Society Open Science, 8, 201059.

Kim, H., & Schnall, S. (2021). Profit for friends, fairness for strangers: Social distance reverses the endowment effect in proxy decision making. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 59, 102395.

Gilchrist, P. T., Schnall, S., Vrinceanu, T., Nguyen, S., Ditto, B. (2021). Induced disgust increases negative implicit attitudes towards blood donation. ISBT Science Series, 16, 132-138.

Schnall, S., & Henderson, R. K. (2021). Cleansing and separation procedures reflect resource concerns. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 49-51.

Van Bavel, J. J., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., Crockett, M. J., Crum, A. J., Douglas, K. M., Druckman, J. N., Drury, J., Dube, O., Ellemers, N., Finkel, E. J., Fowler, J. H., Gelfand, M., Han, S., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Kitayama, S., Mobbs, D., Napper, L. E., Packer, D. J., Pennycook, G., Peters, E., Petty, R. E., Rand, D. G., Reicher, S. D., Schnall, S. Shariff, A., Skitka, L. J., Smith, S. S., Sunstein, C. R., Tabri, N., Tucker, J. A., van der Linden, S., van Lange, P., Weeden, K. A., Wohl, M. J. A., Zaki, J., Zion, S. R., & Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behavior, 4, 460-471.

Karg, S. T., Wiener-Blotner, A. & Schnall, S. (2019). Disgust sensitivity is associated with heightened risk perception. Journal of Risk Perception, 22, 627-642.          Open Data:

Pavarini, G., Sun, R., Mahmoud, M., Cross, I., Schnall, S., Fischer, A., Deakin, J., Ziauddeen, H., Kogan, A., Vuillier, L. (2019). The role of oxytocin in the facial mimicry of affiliative vs. non-affiliative emotions. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 104377.          Open Data:

Schei, T. S. Sheikh, S., & Schnall, S. (2019). Atoning past indulgences: Oral consumption and moral compensation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2103.          Open Data:

Wu, Y., Li, J., van Djik, E., Li, H., & Schnall, S. (2018). The color red is implicitly associated with social status in the United Kingdom and China. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1902.          Open Data:

Yang., X. F., Pavarini, G., Schnall, S., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2018). Looking up to virtue: Averting gaze facilitates moral construals via posteromedial activations. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 1131-1139.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2018). Close or far. Affect explains conflicting findings on motivated distance perception to rewards Acta Psychologica, 190, 188-198.         Open Data:

Bocian, K., Baryla, W., Kulesza, W. M., Schnall, S., & Wojciszke, B. (2018). The mere liking effect. Attitudinal influences on attributions of moral character. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 79, 9-20.

Gilchrist, P. T., & Schnall, S. (2018). The paradox of moral cleansing: When physical cleansing leads to increased contamination concerns. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 61, 38-44.

Clore, G. L., & Schnall, S. (2018). The influence of affect on attitude. In D. Albarracín & B. T. Johnson (Eds.), Handbook of attitudes (2nd edition) (pp. 359-390). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pavarini, G., & Schnall, S. (2018). The moralization of the body: Protecting and expanding the boundaries of the self. In K. Gray & J. Graham (Eds.), The atlas of moral psychology: Mapping good and evil in the mind (pp. 279-291). New York: Guilford.

Schnall, S. (2017). No magic bullet in sight: A reply to Firestone and Scholl (2017) and Durgin (2017). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 347-349.

Schnall, S. (2017). Social and contextual constraints on embodied perception. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 325-340.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2017). A dual systems account of visual perception: Predicting candy consumption from distance estimates. Acta Psychologica, 175, 1-12.          Open Data:

Hedge, C., Weaver, R., & Schnall, S. (2017). Spatial learning and wayfinding in an immersive environment: The Digital Fulldome. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20, 327-333.          Open Data:

Schnall, S. (2017). Disgust as embodied loss aversion. European Review of Social Psychology, 28, 50-94.

Duschinsky, R., Schnall, S., & Weiss, D. (Eds.) (2016). Purity and danger now: New perspectives. London: Routledge. Order your copy on

Schnall, S. (2016). The mind beyond boundaries: Concluding remarks. In R. Duschinsky, S. Schnall, & D. Weiss (Eds.), Purity and danger now: New perspectives (pp. 269-280). London: Routledge.

Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L., & Jordan, A. H. (2015). Landy and Goodwin (2015) confirmed most of our findings then drew the wrong conclusions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 537-538.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2014). Too close for comfort: Stimulus valence moderates the influence of motivational orientation on distance perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 978-993.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2014). When perception says “no” to action: Approach cues make steep hills appear even steeper. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 89-98.

Schnall, S. (2014). Clean data: Statistical artifacts wash out replication efforts. Social Psychology, 45, 315-317.

Lee, E. H., & Schnall, S. (2014). The influence of social power on weight perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1719-1725.

Schnall, S. Are there basic metaphors? (2014). In M. J. Landau, M. D. Robinson & B. P. Meier (Eds.), The power of metaphor: Examining its influence on social life (pp. 225-247). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Pavarini, G., & Schnall, S. (2014). Is the glass of kindness half full or half empty? Positive and negative reactions to others’ expressions of virtue. In H. Sarkissian & J. Wright (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Moral Psychology (pp. 55-72). London: Bloomsbury.

Marini, M., Sriram, N., Schnabel, K., Maliszewski, N., Devos, T., Ekehammar, B., Wiers, R., Cai, H., Somogyi, M., Shiomura, K., Schnall, S., Neto, F., Bar-Anan, Y., Vianello, M., Ayala, A., Dorantes, G., Park, J., Kesebir, S., Pereira, A., Tulbure, B., Ortner, T., Stepanikova, I., Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias. PLoS ONE, 8, e83543.

Kim, H., Schnall, S., Yi, D., & White, M. P. (2013). Social distance decreases responders’ sensitivity to fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Judgment and Decision Making, 8, 632-638.

Kim, H., Schnall, S., & White, M. P. (2013). Similar psychological distance reduces temporal discounting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1005-1016.

Huntsinger, J. R., & Schnall, S. (2013). Emotion/cognition interactions. In D. Reisberg, (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 571-584). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Schnall, S. (2013). Disgust. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind (Vol. 1, pp. 253-255). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Zarkadi, T., & Schnall, S. (2013). “Black and White” thinking: Visual contrast polarizes moral judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 355-359.

Lau, H. P. B., White, M. P., & Schnall, S. (2012). Quantifying the value of emotions using a willingness to pay approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1543-1561.

Schnall S., & Cannon, P. R. (2012). The clean conscience at work: Emotions, intuitions and morality. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9, 295-315.

Scheske, C., & Schnall, S. (2012). The ethics of ‘smart drugs’: Moral judgments about healthy people’s use of cognitive-enhancing drugs. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34, 508-515.

Meier, B. P., Schnall, S., Schwarz, N., & Bargh, J. A. (2012). Embodiment in social psychology. Topics in Cognitive Science, 4, 705-716.

Schnall, S., Hedge, C., & Weaver, R. (2012). The immersive virtual environment of the Digital Fulldome: Considerations of relevant psychological processes. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 70, 561-575.

Schnall, S., & Roper, J. (2012). Elevation puts moral values into action. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 373-378.

Schnall, S. (2011). Clean, proper and tidy are more than the absence of dirty, disgusting and wrong. Emotion Review, 3, 264-266.

Schnall, S. (2011). Embodiment in affective space: Social influences on spatial perception. In A. Maas, & T. Schubert (Eds.), Spatial dimensions of social thought (pp.129-152). Berlin: De Gruyter.

Cannon, P. R., Schnall, S., & White, M. (2011). Transgressions and expressions: Affective facial muscle activity predicts moral judgments. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 325-331.

Schnall, S. (2011). Affect, mood and emotions. In S. Järvelä (Ed.), Social and emotional aspects of learning (pp. 59-63). Oxford: Academic Press.

Schnall, S., Roper, J., & Fessler, D. M. T. (2010). Elevation leads to altruistic behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 315-320.

Schnall, S., Zadra, J., & Proffitt, D. R. (2010). Direct evidence for the economy of action: Glucose and the perception of geographical slant. Perception, 39, 464-482.

Verde, M. F., Stone, L., Hatch, H., & Schnall, S. (2010). Distinguishing between mnemonic and attributional sources of familiarity: Positive emotion bias as a case study. Memory and Cognition, 38, 142-153.

Schnall, S. (2010). Affect, mood and emotions. In B. McGaw, P. P. Peterson, & E. Baker (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd edition, Vol. 6), pp. 544-548. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Spellman, B. A., & Schnall, S. (2009). Embodied rationalityQueen’s Law Journal, 35, 117-164.

Schnall, S., Benton, J., & Harvey, S. (2008). With a clean conscience: Cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgments. Psychological Science, 19, 1219-1222.

Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L., & Jordan, A. H. (2008). Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1096-1109.

Schnall, S., Harber, K., Stefanucci, J. & Proffitt, D. R. (2008). Social support and the perception of geographical slant. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1246-1255.

Centerbar, D.*, Schnall, S.*, Clore, G. L. & Garvin, E. (2008). Affective Incoherence: When affective concepts and embodied reactions clash. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 560-578. (*Note: Joint First Authors because of Equal Contribution).

Schnall, S., Jaswal, V., & Rowe, C. (2008). A hidden cost of happiness in children. Developmental Science. 11, F25-F30.

Clore, G. L., & Schnall, S. (2008). Affective coherence: Affect as embodied evidence in attitude, advertising and art. In G. R. Semin & E. Smith (Eds.) Embodied grounding: Social, cognitive, affective, and neuroscientific approaches (pp. 211-236). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Schnall, S., & Laird, J. D. (2007). Facing fear: Expression of fear facilitates processing of emotional information. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 513-524.

Schnall, S. (2007). Karl Duncker. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), Thinking in Psychological Science: Ideas and their makers (pp. 17-38). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction/Aldine.

Schnall, S. (2005). The pragmatics of emotion language. Psychological Inquiry 16, 28-31.

Clore, G. L., & Schnall, S. (2005). The influence of affect on attitude. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P., Zanna (Eds.), Handbook of attitudes (pp. 437-489). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schnall, S., & Clore, G. L. (2004). Emergent meaning in affective space: Congruent conceptual relations and spatial relations produce positive evaluations. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1209-1214.

Schnall, S., & Laird, J. D. (2003). Keep smiling: Enduring effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 787-797.

Schnall, S., Abrahamson, A. & Laird, J. D. (2002). Premenstrual syndrome and misattribution: A self-perception, individual differences perspective. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24, 214-227.

Schnall, S. (2002). Review of metaphor and emotion: Language, culture and body in human feeling. Metaphor and Symbol, 17, 243-247.

Schnall, S. (1999). Life as the problem: Karl Duncker’s context. From Past to Future: Papers on the History of Psychology, 1, 13-28.

Schnall, S. & Gattis, M. (1998). Transitive inference by visual reasoning. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 929 – 934.