All Publications

Please Note: These electronic articles are posted for individual, noncommericial use to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly work. They are intended for teaching and training purposes only. Articles may not be re-posted or disseminated without permission of the copyright holder.


Yang., X. F., Pavarini, G., Schnall, S., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2018). Looking up to virtue: Averting gaze facilitates moral construals via posteromedial activations. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 1131-1139.

Wu, Y., Li, J., van Djik, E., Li, H., & Schnall, S. (in press). The color red is implicitly associated with social status in the United Kingdom and China. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1902.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2018). Close or far? Affect explains conflicting findings on motivated distance perception to rewards. Acta Psychologica, 190, 188-198.

Bocian, K., Baryla, W., Kulesza, W. M., Schnall, S., & Wojciszke, B. (2018). The mere liking effect: Attitudinal influences on attributions of moral character. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 79, 9-20.

Gilchrist, P. T., & Schnall, S. (2018). The paradox of moral cleansing: When physical cleansing leads to increased contamination concerns. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 61, 38-44.

Karg, S. T., Wiener-Blotner, A. & Schnall, S. (2018). Disgust sensitivity is associated with heightened risk perception. Journal of Risk Perception.

Clore, G. L., & Schnall, S. (2018). The influence of affect on attitude. In D. Albarracín,  B. T. Johnson, & M. P., Zanna (Eds.), Handbook of attitudes (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pavarini, G., & Schnall, S. (2018). The moralization of the body: Protecting and expanding the boundaries of the self. In K. Gray & J. Graham (Eds.), The atlas of moral psychology: Mapping good and evil in the mind (pp. 279-291). New York: Guilford.

Schnall, S. (2017). No magic bullet in sight: A reply to Firestone and Scholl (2017) and Durgin (2017). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 347-349.

Schnall, S. (2017). Social and contextual constraints on embodied perception. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 325-340.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2017). A dual systems account of visual perception: Predicting candy consumption from distance estimates. Acta Psychologica, 175, 1-12.

Hedge, C., Weaver, R., & Schnall, S. (2017). Spatial learning and wayfinding in an immersive environment: The Digital Fulldome. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20, 327-333.

Schnall, S. (2017). Disgust as embodied loss aversion. European Review of Social Psychology, 28, 50-94.

Duschinsky, R., Schnall, S., & Weiss, D. (Eds.) (2016). Purity and danger now: New perspectives. London: Routledge. Order your copy on Amazon.co.uk.

Schnall, S. (2016). The mind beyond boundaries: Concluding remarks. In R. Duschinsky, S. Schnall, & D. Weiss (Eds.), Purity and danger now: New perspectives (pp. 269-280). London: Routledge.

Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L., & Jordan, A. H. (2015). Landy and Goodwin (2015) confirmed most of our findings then drew the wrong conclusions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 537-538.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2014). Too close for comfort: Stimulus valence moderates the influence of motivational orientation on distance perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 978-993.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2014). When perception says “no” to action: Approach cues make steep hills appear even steeper. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 89-98.

Schnall, S. (2014). Clean data: Statistical artifacts wash out replication efforts. Social Psychology, 45, 315-317.

Lee, E. H., & Schnall, S. (2014). The influence of social power on weight perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1719-1725.

Schnall, S. Are there basic metaphors? (2014). In M. J. Landau, M. D. Robinson & B. P. Meier (Eds.), The power of metaphor: Examining its influence on social life (pp. 225-247). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Pavarini, G., & Schnall, S. (2014). Is the glass of kindness half full or half empty? Positive and negative reactions to others’ expressions of virtue. In H. Sarkissian & J. Wright (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Moral Psychology (pp. 55-72). London: Bloomsbury.

Marini, M., Sriram, N., Schnabel, K., Maliszewski, N., Devos, T., Ekehammar, B., Wiers, R., Cai, H., Somogyi, M., Shiomura, K., Schnall, S., Neto, F., Bar-Anan, Y., Vianello, M., Ayala, A., Dorantes, G., Park, J., Kesebir, S., Pereira, A., Tulbure, B., Ortner, T., Stepanikova, I., Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias. PLoS ONE, 8, e83543.

Kim, H., Schnall, S., Yi, D., & White, M. P. (2013). Social distance decreases responders’ sensitivity to fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Judgment and Decision Making, 8, 632-638.

Kim, H., Schnall, S., & White, M. P. (2013). Similar psychological distance reduces temporal discounting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1005-1016.

Huntsinger, J. R., & Schnall, S. (2013). Emotion/cognition interactions. In D. Reisberg, (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 571-584). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Schnall, S. (2013). Disgust. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind (Vol. 1, pp. 253-255). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Zarkadi, T., & Schnall, S. (2013). “Black and White” thinking: Visual contrast polarizes moral judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 355-359.

Lau, H. P. B., White, M. P., & Schnall, S. (2012). Quantifying the value of emotions using a willingness to pay approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1543-1561.

Schnall S., & Cannon, P. R. (2012). The clean conscience at work: Emotions, intuitions and morality. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9, 295-315.

Scheske, C., & Schnall, S. (2012). The ethics of ‘smart drugs’: Moral judgments about healthy people’s use of cognitive-enhancing drugs. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34, 508-515.

Meier, B. P., Schnall, S., Schwarz, N., & Bargh, J. A. (2012). Embodiment in social psychology. Topics in Cognitive Science, 4, 705-716.

Schnall, S., Hedge, C., & Weaver, R. (2012). The immersive virtual environment of the Digital Fulldome: Considerations of relevant psychological processes. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 70, 561-575.

Schnall, S., & Roper, J. (2012). Elevation puts moral values into action. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 373-378.

Schnall, S. (2011). Clean, proper and tidy are more than the absence of dirty, disgusting and wrong. Emotion Review, 3, 264-266.

Schnall, S. (2011). Embodiment in affective space: Social influences on spatial perception. In A. Maas, & T. Schubert (Eds.), Spatial dimensions of social thought (pp.129-152). Berlin: De Gruyter.

Cannon, P. R., Schnall, S., & White, M. (2011). Transgressions and expressions: Affective facial muscle activity predicts moral judgments. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 325-331.

Schnall, S. (2011). Affect, mood and emotions. In S. Järvelä (Ed.), Social and emotional aspects of learning (pp. 59-63). Oxford: Academic Press.

Schnall, S., Roper, J., & Fessler, D. M. T. (2010). Elevation leads to altruistic behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 315-320.

Schnall, S., Zadra, J., & Proffitt, D. R. (2010). Direct evidence for the economy of action: Glucose and the perception of geographical slant. Perception, 39, 464-482.

Verde, M. F., Stone, L., Hatch, H., & Schnall, S. (2010). Distinguishing between mnemonic and attributional sources of familiarity: Positive emotion bias as a case study. Memory and Cognition, 38, 142-153.

Schnall, S. (2010). Affect, mood and emotions. In B. McGaw, P. P. Peterson, & E. Baker (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd edition, Vol. 6), pp. 544-548. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Spellman, B. A., & Schnall, S. (2009). Embodied rationalityQueen’s Law Journal, 35, 117-164.

Schnall, S., Benton, J., & Harvey, S. (2008). With a clean conscience: Cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgments. Psychological Science, 19, 1219-1222.

Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L., & Jordan, A. H. (2008). Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1096-1109.

Schnall, S., Harber, K., Stefanucci, J. & Proffitt, D. R. (2008). Social support and the perception of geographical slant. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1246-1255.

Centerbar, D.*, Schnall, S.*, Clore, G. L. & Garvin, E. (2008). Affective Incoherence: When affective concepts and embodied reactions clash. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 560-578. (*Note: Joint First Authors because of Equal Contribution)

Schnall, S., Jaswal, V., & Rowe, C. (2008). A hidden cost of happiness in children. Developmental Science. 11, F25-F30.

Clore, G. L., & Schnall, S. (2008). Affective coherence: Affect as embodied evidence in attitude, advertising and art. In G. R. Semin & E. Smith (Eds.) Embodied grounding: Social, cognitive, affective, and neuroscientific approaches (pp. 211-236). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Schnall, S., & Laird, J. D. (2007). Facing fear: Expression of fear facilitates processing of emotional information. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 513-524.

Schnall, S. (2007). Karl Duncker. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), Thinking in Psychological Science: Ideas and their makers (pp. 17-38). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction/Aldine.

Schnall, S. (2005). The pragmatics of emotion language. Psychological Inquiry 16, 28-31.

Clore, G. L., & Schnall, S. (2005). The influence of affect on attitude. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P., Zanna (Eds.), Handbook of attitudes (pp. 437-489). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schnall, S., & Clore, G. L. (2004). Emergent meaning in affective space: Congruent conceptual relations and spatial relations produce positive evaluations. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1209-1214.

Schnall, S., & Laird, J. D. (2003). Keep smiling: Enduring effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 787-797.

Schnall, S., Abrahamson, A. & Laird, J. D. (2002). Premenstrual syndrome and misattribution: A self-perception, individual differences perspective. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24, 214-227.

Schnall, S. (2002). Review of metaphor and emotion: Language, culture and body in human feeling. Metaphor and Symbol, 17, 243-247.

Schnall, S. (1999). Life as the problem: Karl Duncker’s context. From Past to Future: Papers on the History of Psychology, 1, 13-28.

Schnall, S. & Gattis, M. (1998). Transitive inference by visual reasoning. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 929 – 934.